• 破除迷霧-從評分標準來解決雅思寫作的理解誤區

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    樓主 2021-03-03 07:28:00
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    華茲華斯?▍老湯煲英語

    破除迷霧

    從評分標準來解決雅思寫作的理解誤區



    雅思寫作考試是一項英語寫作能力的測試。Task 2的要求為在時間范圍內寫出一篇250字以上的論述性或說明性文章。




    從評分的角度來說,下面是四項評分的標準:

    1.對于任務的回應?Task Response

    2.連貫與銜接?Coherence & Cohesion

    3.詞匯資源?Lexical Resources

    4.語法結構的范圍和準確性?Grammatical Range ?& Accuracy

    雅思寫作的評分是定性評估(Qualitative Evaluation),也就是說不是以對錯的數量多少來評分而是根據文章整體內容的質量來評分。那文章的質量如何評估呢?

    文章質量如何評估?

    在大作文來看,就是要根據考生對于任務的回應程度,文章的連貫度與銜接性,考生所體現出的詞匯量和使用的靈活性,以及學生所能夠運用的語法結構的多樣性和準確度這樣幾個方面來分別評估最后得到一個綜合的成績。簡單來講,就是上述4個評分標準的單項單獨評分,然后綜合起來算平均分數從而得到大作文的最后分數?,F階段的評分比重上來說,Task Response和Coherence & Cohesion兩個單項占了總分的50%,剩下的一半依靠Lexical Resources和Grammatical Range & Accuracy的表現。所以,如果考生析提清晰,立意新穎,但是詞匯語法方面捉襟見肘,那么Task 2的總分很難漂亮。同理,如果考生的詞匯和語法能力很好,但是題目要求沒有分析清楚,或者文章沒有什么邏輯性,造成考官的理解困難,那么分數依然不會很高。


    曾經有一位英語基礎也相當不錯的同學考移民類的寫作題目與 “Unhealthy Diet”相關,結果由于自己的馬虎大意,將題目錯看成了 “Unhealthy Die”了,而且還匪夷所思得洋洋灑灑寫了近300字.結果只能看著自己其他幾個單項成績紛紛過線,而寫作只得了個4分。同樣,曾經有個程度不錯的同學的寫作分數總是不好,百思不得其解。后來他跟我說自己經常寫中文的散文,所以雅思作文也就寫成散文了。結果縱然析題清楚,但多了不完整的句式,詞匯又過于隨意,分數還是不樂觀。


    仔細研究評分標準后我們不難發現,在四項評分標準中,第一和第二項都是考察的學生的“寫作”能力,分別強調的是審題和論述內容的安排,以及文章段落思路是否連貫而且有邏輯性。作為對寫作能力的考察,這兩項的評分標準與英語可是說是沒有什么直接的關系關系,反而跟大家的寫作能力有關。

    接下來我們再來看一下剩下的第三和第四項評分標準。不難發現,這兩個單項更加偏重的是考察大家的“英語”能力。這兩個單項要求考生體現出足夠的詞匯量和操作復雜語法結構的準確度。從某個角度來說,語法和詞匯的知識與能力也可以說是與“寫作”沒有關系的。例如,下表中是Task 2的8分的官方評分標準:

    由上我們可以很明顯的發現,要追求寫作的高分的話就要從兩個方面分別入手:提高自身的寫作能力,同時提高自身的英語表達能力?;谶@個原則和評分標準的重點,我們不難發現自己對于寫作考試要求所存在的種種誤區。

    (誤區)Task Response – 題目要求不重要


    整體來講, 大家都傾向于講大作文分為兩種,也就是說明類問題(Descriptive Writing)和論證類問題(Argumentative Writing)。例如, 2005年12月的題目:

    What are some of the essential qualities that a good journalist should have?

    這就是典型的說明類的題目,要描述一個好的新聞記者的必備素質并例證支持。再有如09年3月的下面這個題目:

    Many people think music is an important role in society, others, however others believe music is just simply a form of entertainment for individuals.

    What's your opinion?

    這就是典型的論證類問題,要求大家針對題干中的論點進行論證表態。但是,如果大家單純從這兩個角度來分析題目要求的話,難免就會出現偏題離題的現象。讓我們歸根溯源,再來看一下雅思寫作大作文就究竟要求大家干什么:

    “For Writing Task 2, candidates are presented with an opinion, problem or issue which they must discuss. They may be asked to present the solution to a problem, present and justify an opinion, compare and contrast evidence or opinions, or evaluate and challenge an argument or idea.” -www.ielts.org

    ?

    “The input to Task 2 consists of a statement of a point of view, argument or problem about a specific topic. This is followed by instructions asking candidates to discuss the topic by providing general factual information, outlining and/or presenting a solution, justifying an opinion, or evaluating ideas and evidence” -www.ielts.org

    ?

    上面分別是雅思寫作學術類和移民類Task 2的官方描述。對比分析后我們不難發現,Task 2要求我們做的事情不外乎以下五點:

    1.????? 提供關于題目的事實信息(Factual Information)

    2.????? 提出解決方法

    3.????? 給出并且證明一個觀點

    4.????? 比較并且對比論據和觀點

    5.????? 評價并駁斥一個觀點或論點

    作為一個標準化考試,雅思寫作Task 2的出題要求決定了任何一篇Task 2的題目必須圍繞考察考生的上述一種或幾種能力。所以,寫作開篇的當務之急便是要明確題目要求考生做哪幾個動作。如果這點不明確,那就很有可能踩空失誤。例如,大作文的題庫中曾經有兩道極為相似的真題:

    ?

    題一:?Some people prefer to live in a house while others feel that there are more advantages to living in an apartment. Are there more advantages than disadvantages living in a house compared with living in an apartment?

    ?

    題二:?Some people prefer to live in a house while others feel that there are more advantages to living in an apartment. In your opinion, which do you prefer and why do you think so?

    ?

    這兩個題目看起來很相似,很多同學大概會沖動使然,寫出住房子的好處和住公寓的壞處,或反之亦然。但實際上第一個題目問“與住公寓相比,住房子的優點是是否大于缺點呢?”,這要求我們比較兩者各自的優缺點,然后表態孰好孰壞。而第二個題目的要求我就稍微單純一些,“在你的觀點來看,你更青睞哪一種?為什么?”,這里,我們只需要比較兩種選項:住房子vs住公寓, 并且表態孰好孰壞即可。題一是劍橋雅思7中的一篇官方評分7的范文。讓我們借這篇范文來看一下審題的重要性。首先我們一起來看一下文章的結構,然后我們交叉參考一下考官給出的評語。

    Cambridge IELTS 7, General Training Test A, Writing Task 2

    In big business cities there are two options available for the type of accommodation: houses and apartments.(描述問題的普及性,引出話題)Some people prefer to live in apartments and some like to live in houses.(引出要比較的兩個觀點:公寓/房子)

    ?

    ?In big business cities, where almost everyone is going out daily for work or study, apartments provide a much more comfortable and safe way of living.(給出觀點一:公寓可以提供更多的舒適與安全。從句的使用對給語法有加分的作用)The advantages include the fact that there is one key and lock they have to take care of, and also the sense of being a part of a big family. (將上述觀點展開并具體化。體現住公寓的安全與舒適。從句的使用和連詞and also的使用加強了文章的連貫流行性)Usually a guard sits at the main gate, so? children can play around in the compound with their next door friends.(用例證來支持“安全”這一個點。詞匯方面,compound-住宅的使用不錯) In addition, not much daily cleaning is required in apartments as no staircase have to be clean, which is a difficult task-all house wives know it very well.(用遞進的方式來例證舒適,不用打掃。clean的被動語態使用錯誤,連詞in addition用得有些機械,非限定狀語從句的使用滿足了語法的要求) But a key advantage is that it is safe to go on voccation for a long trip.(用遞進的方式來例證安全。轉折連詞用得過于機械。vacation拼寫錯誤)

    ?

    On the other hand, houses have their own attraction for its inhabitants.(轉折,描述房子的好處。詞匯方面,inhabitants的選詞不錯)Garden lovers usually prefere houses as they can have their own garden.(房子的優勢之一:針對園藝愛好者。prefer的拼寫錯誤)It is also easy to keep a pet, especially a dog in a house because dog can play around the garden.(例證上面論點)If someone is interested in maintaining cars himself, it can only be possible in houses where one can have his own garage.(假設例證繼續論證上面論點。虛擬語氣的使用。maintaining拼寫錯誤)

    ?

    Where people are sometimes much more concerned about their privacy, living in apartments can be a very difficult for them. (轉向描述公寓的缺點。地點狀語從句。can be a very difficult 詞性錯誤。改為can be very difficult略好)It may also be the case that someone is not able to deal with other people, for instance next door neighboures, and than house can be a best choice for such people.(假設例證反證房子的私密性好。neighbours, then拼寫錯誤)

    ?

    ?However, sometimes houses can be a bad choice for low income people.(轉折描述房子的缺點:貴!) Maintaing a big house and running it properly can be a problem for such cases(例證支持上述觀點。動名次作主語,maintaining拼寫錯誤)

    ?

    At the end I must say both options can be good or bad, depending on the personal considerations.(總結表示兩者都各有利弊,因人而異)But from my point of view, I must say apartments seem a gift of modern way of life which is not common in my home town.(給出個人觀點,seems to be會好一些。which應該改為that)

    從結構方面,我們不難發現,這篇文章首先分別寫了住房子和公寓的好處,然后又回筆寫了兩者的壞處。而寫壞處的段落筆墨明顯的比寫好處的要少一些。這可能從側面體現了這位考生寫到最后時,在盡量寫壞處來滿足題目要求,而不是開始的時候就已經計劃好了寫好寫壞的段落比重。而恰恰是這種小心謹慎使得這篇文章的Task Response完成的非常之好。讓我們來看一下考官針對本篇文章TA這一項的評語:

    The response looks at the advantages of living in apartments and houses then briefly considers some disadvantages before giving the candidate’s own opinion. Fuller development of the disadvantages would raise the candidate’s score here.

    當然,這篇文章的句法和詞匯都談不上十分之精彩。但這樣的文章依然可以得到7分更能夠反映出正確析題對分數的影響有多大。由上可見,這個題目對四個點(住房子好處,住房子壞處,住公寓好處,住公寓壞處)的全面描述的要求是必然的。若是考生在這個題目的處理上缺省了任一個點的話,那分數上就一定會受很大的影響。

    練習

    讓我們來看一下下面的一對寫作真題:

    In many countries, children are sent to school at the age of seven, while in others, children go to school at the age of four. Some believe the earlier children receive school education the better it is. What is your opinion?

    ?

    ?In many countries, children are sent to school at the age of seven, while in others, children go to school at the age of four. In your opinion, which one is better?

    -The end-

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